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WEB-BASED HANDBOOK (Legacy Edition). CLICK HERE to submit comments.
Because of staff changes and Randolph Langenbach's retirement from FEMA, these handbooks were never published on the FEMA website.  These are the only copies available.


Chapter 3: BRIDGES 

C. Erosion (Approaches)




Damage to bridge approaches resulting from overtopping with subsequent erosion of the road surface, shoulder and embankment, and from impact of flood flows and debris with subsequent erosion of the embankment.

Mitigation Objective:

To prevent future damage to bridge approaches (embankments, road shoulder, and road surface) by eliminating overtopping and erosion.

C1.       Install High Water Overflow Crossing.

(SEE 2.A.8)

C2.       Construct a Relief Opening.

(SEE 3.B.5)

C3.       Realign Stream Channel.

(SEE 2.D.5)

C4.       Construct Road Surface & Shoulder Protection.

(SEE 2.C.2)

C5.       Bio-Engineered Embankment Slope Protection.

(SEE 1.B.1)

C6.       Install Lining in the Ditch.

(SEE 1.A.2)



NOTE:  None of the mitigation measures in these Handbooks should be considered ‘pre-approved’ or otherwise automatically eligible for FEMA funding. Only FEMA staff can determine eligibility, once they have determined that an applicant is eligible and they have reviewed a project proposal.

FEMA HAZARD MITIGATION HANDBOOKS                                                                        Updated: June 13, 2002