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WEB-BASED HANDBOOK (Legacy Edition). CLICK HERE to submit comments.
Because of staff changes and Randolph Langenbach's retirement from FEMA, these handbooks were never published on the FEMA website.  These are the only copies available.




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    Symbols and Keywords
     Mitigation Alternatives
 I.       ROADS
     A.     Ditch Erosion
     B.     Embankment Erosion
     C.     Roadway Erosion
     A.      Insufficient capacity
     B.      Plugging
     C.      Embankment Erosion
     D.      Misalignment
     A.      Misalignment
     B.      Insufficient Flow Capacity
     C.      Erosion (Approaches)
     D.      Scour (Piers & Abutments)
     E.      Debris Impact
     A.     Inundation
     B.      High Velocity Flows
     A.      High Velocity Flows
     B.      Soil Settlement
     A.      High Velocity Flows
     A.      Inundation
     B.      High Velocity Flows
     A.      Regulations
     B.      Glossary &
         Keyword Index
     C.      Acronyms
     D.      References
     E.      List of Contributors


Hazard Mitigation Handbook


Since 1994, each state within Region 10 has incurred at least three Presidentially-declared disasters for flood events. Between 1994 and 2000, Region 10's Public Assistance program provided $397.5 million to municipalities, counties, and other eligible applicants for the repair and restoration of flood damaged public facilities.

Northwest flood damages are most commonly caused by excessively heavy rains, successive rainstorm events, or rapid melting of heavy snow accumulations. With these events, peak flood levels are reached and recede relatively rapidly.

Assessing the Cause of Damage

Mitigation measures are designed to reduce or eliminate future damage to facilities. Determination of the appropriate mitigation measure depends, in part, on an assessment of the cause of damage. A proper assessment is critical, as mitigation applied inappropriately could actually increase risk to the facility or other structures in the floodplain. Assessments should:

  • be made as soon as possible after the flood event;
  • be based on technically sound field observations;
  • include discussions with maintenance personnel, local citizens, and other persons who observed when and how damage occurred; and
  • be verified, when possible, by records of past damages such as photographs.

Details on assessing the causes of damage are discussed at the "Introductions" for each facility where appropriate.

The Chapters of this Handbook identify the types of flood damage most typically sustained by public facilities.  Various mitigation measures are then provided which respond to the specific damage types of that facility.


NOTE:  None of the mitigation measures in these Handbooks should be considered ‘pre-approved’ or otherwise automatically eligible for FEMA funding. Only FEMA staff can determine eligibility, once they have determined that an applicant is eligible and they have reviewed a project proposal.

FEMA HAZARD MITIGATION HANDBOOKS                                                                        Updated: June 13, 2002